Chapel-en-le-Frith in old picture postcards volume 1

Chapel-en-le-Frith in old picture postcards volume 1

Auteur
:   Mike Smith
Gemeente
:  
Provincie
:   Derbyshire
Land
:   United Kingdom
ISBN13
:   978-90-288-6020-9
Pagina's
:   80
Prijs
:   EUR 16.95 Incl BTW *

Levertijd: 2-3 weken (onder voorbehoud). Het getoonde omslag kan afwijken.

   


Fragmenten uit het boek 'Chapel-en-le-Frith in old picture postcards volume 1'

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Introduetion

The Royal Porest of the Peak was a vast tract of high, rugged land in the southern Permines which was used as a hunting ground for the Norman kings. In 1225 a group of foresters who had settled in the part of the forest known as Bowden erected a church in the forest - a chapel-en-le-frith. The church, which was founded as a chapel-of-ease to the mother church of St. Peter at Hope, was built on a spur of land below Ecdes Pike - a conical hili at the heart of a wide upland valley which is ringed by the loftier hilis and ridges of the High Peak. The town which grew up around the church quickly assumed some importanee in the King's Forest and became a recognised stopping place on the many trade routes which crossed the area.

The Church of St. Thomas Becket occupies the site of the original 13 th-century chapel and a substantial Old Town forms the care ofthe present-day settlement of Chapel-en-le-Fnth. Old stone houses ding to the hillside below the church and there is a cobbIed market place which is crammed with interesting monuments, induding old stocks and an ancient market cross. The large number of inns in the town is testimony to Chapel's longstanding role as a staging post, and in the last 200 years the town has played an important part in the development of transport: a gravitation railway was established here in 1796 as part of a scheme to transport limestone from the quarries of the Peak District to the Peak Forest Canal; two great stone viaducts

were built in fue 19fu century to carry railways across the Blackbrook Valley; and Herbert Frood established the Ferodo Brake Linings factory here in 1902 after developing a revolutienary new braking material.

A remarkable feature of the area is the large concentration of old halls in the gritstone hills which surround the town. These estates may have their origin in the first colonisation of the Royal Forest during the 13th century, when 'burgages' were granted in return for services to the Crown. Many generations of Chapel families have lived in these grand stone houses in the hilis of the High Peak. The halls have changed hands by purchase and most have been altered over the years, but they remain romantic and fascinating places.

The dark grey and dull green hills which frame the town have a timeless attraction, but since the EndosureActs of'the 17th and 18th century their beauty has been enhanced by a covering nerwork of drystone walls which picks out and exaggerates every change of contour. The long, high ridge of Combs Moss, which forms the southern boundary of Chapel-en-le-Frith, has a distinctive profile which is reminiscent ofTable Mountain; the prominent peak ofSouth Head dominates the northern approach to the town; and the highest regions of the Peak District, on the Kinder Scout plateau, are [ust a few miles to the north-east. Permine communities are places where tradition and legend

take a strang hold. In these pages you will find the strange story of Dickey's Skull, discover the origin of Squire Frith's Hunting Song and meet many local heroes and characters. Grand processions, pageants and celebrations are a feature of Chapellife and there is a tradition of Special Bells for feast-days and funerals. Sport, Scout and Guide packs, Boys' and Girls' Brigades, brass bands and choral singing have all had astrong following in the town for many years. Chapel has also witnessed its share of tragedy: in 1648 the church became known as 'Derbyshire's Black Hole' when 44 Scottish soldiers were found dead after being imprisoned in the building for two weeks by Crornwell's forces; in the early years of this century the town lost many ofits young men in the Great War.

The old picture postcards and photographs in this baak tell the story of a town with a long and romantic past; they also give a fascinating glimpse ofPeak District life in by-gone days.

lam greatly indebted to the many people who have helped me during the preparation of this book. Donna Kadzewska, Jean Kadzewska, Alwin Pickering, Jean Bailey, Dorothy Vernon, Ada Lomas and Cyril Facey have all been kind enough to laan pictures from their collections of old postcards and share with me their considerable knowledge of the town. Mike Lister kindly

gave me permission to use illustrations and material from his excellent video 'Chapel-en-Ie-Fnth, Then and Now': Sonia Holt, Professor Newton ofSheffield and Hilary Bagshawe ofWormhill Hall all helped me to identify individuals on a photograph of the Bagshawe family; Andrew Kadzewski contributed inforrnation and advice; the senior citizens of the Friday Club at the Methodist Church gave me the benefit of their reminiscences; a:nd the staff at Buxton Local History Library, the Buxton Museum and Chapel Library were all very helpful. I am especially indebted to Donna Kadzewska, whose recollections of Chapellife and whose collection of postcards were the first inspiration for this book. Any errors of fact or interpretation are, of course, solely my responsibility

1 In 1 22 5 the foresters of the Royal Forest of the Peak were given permisston to build a chapel-of-ease to the mother church of St. Peter at Hope.The chapel was erected on a spur ofland close to the crossing of two important forest tracks. Extensions were constructed in 1380 by which time the chapel had become an independent church. In 1733 the tower and south front were re- fashioned in classical style. Unfortunate1y, the ashlar was very badly dressed during the re-building, leaving today's church with an attractive, but crumbling appearance. Some fragments of the thirteenthcentury chapel were found during the restoration of the

chancel in 1890. In the churchyard, there is a simple tombstone which is said to date from the days of the Royal Forest. The stone slab, known locally as the Woodcutter's Grave, be ars only the

letters PL. and a picture of an axe.

2 The consecration of the church at Chapel-en-le-Frith taak place on 7thJuly 1225. Records suggest that the ceremony was conducted by Alexander de Stavenby, Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield. The new chapel-of-ease was dedicated to the memory of St. Thomas Becket, who had been murdered in Canterbury Cathedral on 29th December 1170. Exactly five years to the day before the consecration of Chapel Church, the saint's body had been moved to a specially -constructed shrine in the choir of the cathedral, and 7 th July had come to be recognised nationally as the feast-day of St. Thomas. On Zth Iuly 1925, the townspeople of Chapel commemo-

rated the 700th anniversary of the founding of their church by staging a rather bizarre and gruesome ceremouy: an ox was roasted on a spit in Market Place. The photograph shows children tak-

ing turns to rotate the spit, having paid a pemlY each for the privilege.

3 Three features dommate this view of the church interior: the box pews, first installed in 1830; the Flemishstyle eighteenth century chandelier, presenred to the church in 1731, and said to have been modelled on a chandelier in Bruges Cathedral: and the wide chancel arch, an architectural feature found in many Derbyshire churches, The footings of the nave columns are hidden below the cutrent floer-level, indicating that the nave was once slmken below the level of the chancel. A tie-beani is dated 1599 and there are same fourteenth-century clerestory windows on the north side. Monurnents include a simple thirteenth-century

stone coffm and a nurnber of rather more elaborate memorials to the Bagshawe fàmily, whose most famous mernber is William Bagshawe, the Apostle of the Peak. Perhaps the most attractive feature in

the interior is the beautiful pink-nnted stone, from Crist Quarry at Buxworth, which was used in some of the restoration work,

4 The attractive classical porch of 1733 is topped by a sun-dial, which bears the inscription 'Life is like a Shadovr', Near the entrance to the church, there is another sundial, which is placed on top of a 300 year old stone stump. A much older shaft of stone nearby is a Saxon cross, which was discovered in 1920, built into a wall at 01lerenshaw, some three miles to the west of Chapel. In 1648, 1,500 Scottish soldiers, who had been taken prisoner by Cromwell's farces at the Battle of Ribbleton Moor, were locked in the church for two weeks befare being marched to Chester. When the doors were opened, 44 men were found to be dead and

ten more collapsed befare reaching the Cheshire border, [ust a few miles from Chapel. This gruesome episode earned the church the title 'Derbyshire's Black Hole',

5 Chapel's main street rises fram Smith Braak to its surnrnit at the entrance to Market Place. The photograph shows Market Street befare the Great War, with the inn signs of the King's Arms and the Royal Oak dearly visible at the head of the raad. The Royal Oak was once the meeting place for the Magistrates' Court and the departure point for the Celerity and the Peak Ranger - stage coaches which ran to Stockport and Manchester. This postcard, which was sent by Ada Braddock to Private Fred Heather, who was serving in India with the Sherwood Foresters, carries the message: "This is my destination. The window marked with a cross is my bedroom.'

Ada was about to move into rooms above the telephone exchange. In 1968, the exchange was replaced by an automatic station on Rowton Grange Raad.

6 A flight of steps marks the entrance to Market Place, which is raised above the level of Market Street. In 1936 Market Place was reduced in area when the mam raad was widened to cape with an increasing flow of traffk. The large building on the right, which housed the District Bank, was demolished to make way for a modern, but suitably-plain and stone-faced structure for the National Westminster Bank. The building which carries the newspaper advertisement has been pulled down, leaving an unsightly gap in the streetscape, and the eleborate gateway on the right has also been demolished. No less than four inns are visible in this picture:

the Royal aak, the Pack Horse and the Dog Inn, which stand side-by-side on the mam street, and the King's Arms, which faces Marker Place.The large number of inns is testimony to Chapel's historical

importance as a stopping place on the routeways across the Pennines.

7 Each Thursday a busy Iitde open-air marker is held on Market Place, bringing bustle and colour to the centre of the aId town. The tradition of a weekly stall market was revivedin 1978, whenThursday was selected as market day, even though the day for the holding of the market had been changed back from Thursday to Wednesday in

1 92 8. Visitors to Chapel' s market have never been short of a drink: over the years na fewer than eleven public houses have had premises adjacent to Market Place: taday, there are four. For many years a cattle market was held on the firstThursday of each

month and, until 1910, a Waal Fair took place on the nearestTuesday to the 7th]uly (the feast -day of St. Thomas). On Cattle Market Days before the Great War Samuel Dakin would travel to Chapel from

Castleren to sen ropes, which he manufactured at the entrance to Peak Cavern.

8 A mural by Claire Taylor, which decorates the wall ofYe Olde Stocks Café, shows Market Place on a Cattle Market Day in 1897. This postcard shows the cattle market in the early years of this century. Before the Great War, Iohn Hague was Master of the Pound, a small endosure, situated behind the New Inn

on Manchester Raad, where stray cattle were penned. He also had the task oflighting the bonfire in Market Place on 5th November. The building with three dormers is the King's Arms. The inn, which was a stopping place on the Buxton - Manchester Turnpike, was once known as Town Head and consisted of two farm houses: Old House Farm

and New House Farm. There are some vestiges of the farm buildings on the Ecdes Raad side of the inn. The large gabIed building to the right of the King's Arms was known locally as the White House. It

was demohshed to make way for the present Co-operative Society building.

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