Northallerton in old picture postcards volume 1

Northallerton in old picture postcards volume 1

:   Colin Narromore and Patricia Turner
:   Yorkshire, North
:   United Kingdom
:   978-90-288-2290-0
:   96
:   EUR 16.95 Incl BTW *

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Fragmenten uit het boek 'Northallerton in old picture postcards volume 1'

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Northallerton is the County town and administrative centre of North Yorkshire. It owes lts origins, growth and importance to its position in the centre of the Vale of Vork, on the main communications route between the south and the north, and as the market nucleus for a large rural area. It is thought that the Romans had a signal station on its Imperial Postal system at this spot and indeed a minor route between Vork and Hadrian's Wall ran close by, through what eventually became Brompton Parish. However, the town is Saxon in origin. Later in the 10th century Danish insurgents settled at Romanby and Brompton.

lts position on a major route way brought death and destruction to the town on many occasions. In 1069 the whole area was laid waste by the armies of William the Conqueror and was still waste at the time of the Domesday Book. It later suffered at the hands of the Scots in the campaign which cu1minated in the Battle of the Standard, fought largely in Brompton Parish in 1138, and in the later raids of the Black Douglas. During the Civil War of 1642 to 1649 the town gave shelter to King Charles I on two occasions whilst the army of the Duke of Cumberland rested there on its march to Scotland during the Jacobite Rebellion of 1745.

In the golden age of coaching Northallerton had four coaching inns along its High Street serving passengers and horses using several routes to the north. With the arrival of the railway in 1841 the town maintained its importance as a communications centre. The line from London to Edinburgh via Vork and Newcastle passed through the town, as did the line linking the industrial West Riding with the port and steel town of MiddIesbrough.

Northallerton became by Royal Charter, the first charter was granted in 1200, the market centre for the area and also drew traders from further afield to its four annual fairs, reduced to two by the period covered in this book. Cattle drovers bringing cattle, horses and sheep from Northumbria and Scotland regularly came to the town. The original cattle market was by

the Church, but sheep were sold on the High Street as late as the 1890's. With the arrival of the rallway the cattle mark et was built close to the station, but this has subsequently closed and today a cattle market is held every Wednesday at the Applegarth.

Northallerton was a Saxon Burgh and the centre of the Wapentake of Allerton. In the Dornesday Book the area is listed under the lands owned by the Bishop of Durham. William Rufus confirmed this ownership by granting to the Bishop the manorial rights, allowing the holder of the office to collect tolls and fair and market fees. The Bishop ruled the Durham Palatinate like a Prince and exercised great power. He was the Supreme Judge of the Northallerton Court Ha1mot and Courts Leet and Baron, but was represented by a High Steward and Deputy Steward. He had the right to appoint clergy to the chutehes in the area and the right of visitation, both of which were disputed for centuries by the Archhishop of Vork. It was this inherited dispute which caused the then Bishop of Durham, Thomas Wolsey, to order the demolition of Romanhy Church in 1523. Whilst Northallerton, Romanby and Brompton are in the Vork Diocese, the Dean and Chapter of Durham still have the right to appoint clergy to these parishes.

The Quarter Sessions for the area were held in the town from the 17th century, in various huildings including the Tollbooth, the Guild Hall and Vine House, hut eventually a Court House was built in East Road in 1785, close by a House of Correction opened in 1783.

When the Poor Law Union systern was introduced, a workhouse was established in Northallerton to serve three parishes in the area. This building is now part of the Friarage Hospital. Again, when in 1856 the North Riding Constabulary was founded, one of the last County forces to be formed, Northallerton was selected as its headquarters, operating initially from premises in East Road.

With this history of loeal administration, Northallerton

becarne the obvious location for the headquarters of the North Riding County Council, and so in 1906 a purpose built structure, erected on the old racecourse to the south of the town and just within the Parish of Rornanby, was opened. Before the Reform Elections of 1832 the two Parliamentary seats for the borough were in the hands of the Lascelles family who bought the rights from the Bishop of Durham. The Reform Bill reduced the Northallerton seats to only one, widened the franchise to make eligible the solid middle class entrepreneurs and tradesmen who were becoming prominent in the town and broke the hold of the Lascelles family on the town.

The flourishing of these local business interests can be seen in the development of the railway, the growth of local industries, such as linen in Brornpton, and the tarpaulin and brattice cloth factory in Northallerton, but also in a burst of civic pride and identity which led to the removal of the old shambles to be replaced with a town hall. lts position as a communication and administrative centre and as a market town led to the growth of trades and business allied to these interests, but the town has never been isolated from the mainstream of national events or wider developments in technology and social behaviour.

The period covered by the photographs reflects the town's history and its progression, from its ancient parish church, to its newer industries and businesses; from horse drawn coaches to railways and thence to the motor car. The pictures cover an exciting period of transition in the life of a town which throughout its history can be seen as a microcosm of pro vinciallife in England.

In many ways, Romanby represents a North Yorkshire village which, because of circumstance, did not grow to become the county town or a small scale industrial village like Brompton. During the period covered by this book, Romanby remained a small settlement centred around its village green, despite the fact that it lies only a mile from the Northallerton High

Street, and that the main line railway station is only a few hundred yards away from that same village green.

Roger Gale, who wrote a history of the area, put forward the idea that Rornanby got its name because a Roman settlement was established there, but this is Danish in origin and in the Domesday Baak it is referred to as 'Romundebi' which suggests that its origins tie in a Danish personal name, i.e. Romunds settlement. Because of its close proximity to Northallerton, the village shares the same early history of destruction an.I unsettled times. lt had a church, but this was merely a chapel of ease attached to Northallerton Church and was dismantled in 1523. lt came under the auspices of the Bishop of Durham and in 1155 the then Bishop, Hugh Pudsey, granted the tithes of the parish as an endowment to the hospitalof St. James which was situated to the south of Northallerton on the road to Thirsk. This endowment continued until the 1530's when the Dissolution of the minor religieus houses brought about the closure of this hospital. The village remained without a church of its own until1879 when the spiritual needs of the parish were recognised and the Romanby School Room was licensed for divine worship. This quickly proved to be inadequate and in 1882 a new church was built, its architect was C. Hodgson Fowler of Durham, but it was built by Thomas Wood and Company of Pickering, whilst its interlor woodwork was executed by John Meynell, cabinet maker of Northallerton. The Church was dedicated to St. James, in memory of Romanby's earlier association with the St. James' hospital, by the then Archbishop of Vork on May 30th, 1882.

In recent years, especially since the 1960's, Romanby has expanded to meet the needs of increasing housing development in the area and is now virtually a suburb of Northallerton. However, the area around the Green remains very much unchanged and still reflects the atmosphere of an earlier, more leisurely age.

1. This picture of Northallerton in 1869 clearly shows the wide High Street, nearly half a rnile in length which is typical of a Northern Yorkshire market town. Most of the buildings date from the 18th and early 19th centuries. The general roof line here depicted, remains much the same today, but the character of the High Street has been altered by the addition of modern shop fronts. The scene appears so quiet and peaceful in those days before the bustle of motor transport.

0/0 }Vorlhallerlon.

2. This postcard of 1870 shows the Tollbooth, Market Cross and Shambles which stood in the centre of the High Street, The Shambles, a double row of slaughter houses, butehers shops and tanners, had beoome unsightly and provided a health hazard as they attraeted rats from the nearby Sun Beek. The site was purchased from the Ecclesiastical Commissioners by the Northallerton Market and Public Improvement Company and the building was demolished in 1872.

3. The Tollbooth, seen here at the head of the High Street in 1870, had been at the centre of town life since before the 15th century. Here market toIls were paid to the Lord of the Manor, the Bishop of Durham and later the Ecclesiastica1 Commissioners. On the ground floor were several shops and over them a room where earlier the Quarter Sessions were held. The town stocks stood to the south of the building which was used as a temporary loek up. The building was purchased for U8 in 1873 and demolished, thus opening up the market place in front of the newly erected Town Hall.

4. The foundation stone for the Town Hall was Jaid in 1872 on the site ofthe oId ShambIes. Built in an Italianesque style of architecture by Ross of Darlington at a cost of :E5,ooo, the building opened with a Concert Evening on December 22nd, 1873. Before its opening, Northallerton had Jacked a large assernbly room, but its large upper floor and stage has been in continua! use for public assemblies and entertainment. The ground floor with its small shops and hall is still in use for trading and market activities, as it was in 1875 when this photograph was taken.

5. By 1904, when this picture was taken on a quiet Sunday afternoon, the Town Hall had become a prominent feature of the High Street, overlooking the wide market place. The two weekly markets, of which the Wednesday market is the oldest, have long been established. At one time there were fairs four times a year and an annual cheese fair on the second Wednesday in October, all established by a Royal Charter in the Middle Ages, There are still fairs in the Spring and Autumn when the street is filled with rides and sideshows.

6. The Northallerton May Fair, pictured in 1920, was eagerly awaited with its noise, colour and excitement. Originally it would have been a horse and cattle fair and held by the Parish Church, but it has become more of a social entertainment, particularly in the early part of this century, the great age of the steam driven roundabouts and fair ground organs,

7. The market cross, shown here in 1922, symbolises the authority of the town to hold a market and a fair. The present cross was built in 1777, but was temporarily removed to the grounds of Mr. J.I. Jefferson at Standard House when the Shambles were demoJished in 1872, but reinstalled in 1913 in its present position after the building of the Town Hall.

8. When Mr. W.R. Green, tobacconist of the High Street, used this picture in an advertisement in 1930 under the heading 'A Northallerton Oddity', he was not offering as an oddity his special Virginia Cigarettes at one shilling for twenty! The building itself did not conform the general look of the High Street, as it was the only building which presented a gable end to the street. As such it was probably the oldest building extant in that area of the town, dating from about 1650 and no doubt built upon the foundations of an even earlier structure which followed the pattern of the Saxon 'croft and toft' system of land holding.

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